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As the state-of-the-art imaging technologies became more and more advanced, yielding scientific data at unprecedented detail and volume, the need to process and interpret all the data has made image processing and computer vision increasingly important. Sources of data that have to be routinely dealt with today’s applications include video transmission, wireless communication, automatic fingerprint processing, massive databanks, non-weary and accurate automatic airport screening, robust night vision, just to name a few. Multidisciplinary inputs from other disciplines such as physics, computational neuroscience, cognitive science, mathematics, and biology will have a fundamental impact in the progress of imaging and vision sciences. One of the advantages of the study of biological organisms is to devise very different type of computational paradigms by implementing a neural network with a high degree of local connectivity.
This is a comprehensive and rigorous reference in the area of biologically motivated vision sensors. The study of biologically visual systems can be considered as a two way avenue. On the one hand, biological organisms can provide a source of inspiration for new computational efficient and robust vision models and on the other hand machine vision approaches can provide new insights for understanding biological visual systems. Along the different chapters, this book covers a wide range of topics from fundamental to more specialized topics, including visual analysis based on a computational level, hardware implementation, and the design of new more advanced vision sensors. The last two sections of the book provide an overview of a few representative applications and current state of the art of the research in this area. This makes it a valuable book for graduate, Master, PhD students and also researchers in the field.
Do you have a biological question that could be readily answered by computational techniques, but little experience in programming? Do you want to learn more about the core techniques used in computational biology and bioinformatics? Written in an accessible style, this guide provides a foundation for both newcomers to computer programming and those interested in learning more about computational biology. The chapters guide the reader through: a complete beginners’ course to programming in Python, with an introduction to computing jargon; descriptions of core bioinformatics methods with working Python examples; scientific computing techniques, including image analysis, statistics and machine learning. This book also functions as a language reference written in straightforward English, covering the most common Python language elements and a glossary of computing and biological terms. This title will teach undergraduates, postgraduates and professionals working in the life sciences how to program with Python, a powerful, flexible and easy-to-use language.
; “> Many years ago we started programming in Python because we were working on a large computational biology project. In those days choosing Python was not nearly as common as it is today. Nonetheless things worked out well, and as our expertise grew it seemed only natural that we should run some elementary Python courses for the School of Biology at the University of Cambridge, where we were employed. The basis for those courses is what turned into the initial idea for this book. While there were many books about getting started with Python and some that were tailored to bioinformatics, we felt that there was still some room for what we wanted to put across. We began with the idea that we could write some chapters in relatively straightforward English that were aimed at biologists, who might be complete novices at programming, and have other sections that are useful to a more experienced programmer. Also, given that we didn’t consider ourselves to be typical bioinformaticians, we were thinking more broadly than just sequence-based informatics, though naturally such things would be included. We felt that although we
couldn’t anticipate all the requirements of a biological programmer there were nonetheless a number of key concepts and techniques which we could try to explain. The end result is hopefully a toolkit of ideas and examples which can be applied by biologists in a variety of situations.
This book contains innovative research from leading researchers who presented their work at the 17th International Conference on Knowledge-Based and Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems, KES 2013, held in Kitakyusha, Japan, in September 2013. The conference provided a competitive field of 236 contributors, from which 38 authors expanded their contributions and only 21 published. A plethora of techniques and innovative applications are represented within this volume. The chapters are organized using four themes. These topics include: data mining, knowledge management, advanced information processes and system modelling applications. Each topic contains multiple contributions and many offer case studies or innovative examples. Anyone that wants to work with information repositories or process knowledge should consider reading one or more chapters focused on their technique of choice. They may also benefit from reading other chapters to assess if an alternative technique represents a more suitable approach. This book will benefit anyone already working with Knowledge-Based or Intelligent Information Systems, however is suitable for students and researchers seeking to learn more about modern Artificial Intelligence techniques.
Knowledge-Based and Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems is a field of study related to innovative knowledge maangement to achieve intelligent tasks. Research is predominantly software based, however requires and incorporates technology to build new or innovative tools that ultimately benefit society. Industry continues to invest in Knowledge-Based and Intelligent Information and Engineering
Systems, with many creating internal reaserch facilities. During the 20th century, Industry has been heavy invester in this sector and the trend is increasing. This higfhlights the evolution towards a mechanized workforce, resulting in a shift towards more intelligent robots and unmanned systems. A similarly growth area is also being reflecting in agriculture, medicine and portable health care products.
Intelligent Systems are becoming ubiquitous in a wide range of situations. These include facets of simple everyday actions on mobile devices and advanced enterprise level applications. Society continues to benefits from application of innovative knowledgement management techniques and expert decision making in knowledgebased systems. Although knowledge engineering relies on the exploitation of Artificial Intelligence techniques, the field relies on innovative researchers exploring solutions to an ever increasing span of industrial level problems.
This evolution in knowledgement management techniques has become a pervasive phenomenon wihtin the community. These techniques are rapidly being employed within the mobile computing domain and continue to promote the unbiquotous access to information resources. Technolgy is enabling increased processing capabilities to hand-held devices, forcing more innovative access techniques to existing intelligent systems. Society is begining to demand everyday applications that provide convenient access to the wealth of information processing systems serving the public. To achieve this, we must take advantage of the most recent research in information technologies.
We have choosen a handfull of world class contributions from leading-edge researchers to provide readers with the abilitiy explore cutting edge examples of this evolvution in a single volume. These experts share a combined knowledge of over a century of experience in promoting and sharing advancements in both Artificial Intelligence and Knowledge-based engineering. The editors are proud to offer this ensemble of contributions and the reader is encouraged to explore the introduction to orient their expectations prior to focusing on any specific topic(s) of interest. They are also encouraged to extend there interest by exploring the remaining chapters to obtain an up to date exposure of a diverse range of Knowledge-Based and Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems topics and techniques. Several chapters are also dedicated to employing knowledge management methodologies that help solve a diverse range of problems experienced by industry. We hope you enjoy the inovations presentated as much as we did shepherding these contributuons into print.
This volume originates from the lectures on Solid-State Electronics and Microelectronics that I have been giving since 1978 at the School of Engineering of the University of Bologna. Its scope is to provide the reader with a book that, starting from the elementary principles of classical mechanics and electromagnetism, introduces the concepts of quantum mechanics and solid-state theory, and describes the basic physics of semiconductors including the hierarchy of transport models, ending up with the standard mathematical model of semiconductor devices and the analysis of the behavior of basic devices. The ambition of the work has been to write a book, self contained as far as possible, that would be useful for both students and researchers; to this purpose, a strong effort has been made to elucidate physical concepts, mathematical derivations, and approximation levels, without being verbose.
The book is divided into eight parts. Part I deals with analytical mechanics and electromagnetism; purposedly, the material is not given in the form of a resumé:quantum-mechanics and solid-state theory’s concepts are so richly intertwined with the classical ones that presenting the latter in an abridged form may make the reading unwieldy and the connections more difficult to establish. Part II provides the introductory concepts of statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics, followed by the description of the general methods of quantum mechanics. The problem of bridging the classical concepts with the quantum ones is first tackled using the historical perspective, covering the years from 1900 to 1926. The type of statistical description necessary for describing the experiments, and the connection with the limiting case of the same experiments involving massive bodies, is related to the properties of the doubly-stochastic matrices. Part III illustrates a number of applications of the Schrödinger equation: elementary cases, solutions by factorization, and time-dependent perturbation theory. Part IV analyzes the properties of systems of particles, with special attention to those made of identical particles, and the methods for separating the equations. The concepts above are applied in Part V to the analysis of periodic structures, with emphasis to crystals of the cubic type and to silicon in particular, which, since the late 1960s, has been and still is the most important material for the fabrication of integrated circuits. Part VI illustrates the single-electron dynamics in a periodic structure and derives the semiclassical Boltzmann Transport Equation; from the latter, the hydrodynamic and drift-diffusion models of semiconductor devices are obtained using the moments expansion. The drift-diffusion model is used in Part VII to work out analytically the electrical characteristics for the basic devices of the bipolar and MOS type. Finally, Part VIII presents a collection of items which, although important per se, are not in the book’s mainstream: some of the fabrication-process steps of integrated circuits (thermal diffusion, thermal oxidation, layer deposition, epitaxy), and methods for measuring the semiconductor parameters.
In the preparation of the book I have been helped by many colleagues. I wish to thank, in particular, Giorgio Baccarani, Carlo Jacoboni, and Rossella Brunetti, who gave me important suggestions about the matter’s distribution in the book, read the manuscript and, with their observations, helped me to clarify and improve the text; I wish also to thank, for reading the manuscript and giving me their comments,
Giovanni Betti Beneventi, Fabrizio Buscemi, Gaetano D’Emma, Antonio Gnudi, Elena Gnani, Enrico Piccinini, Susanna Reggiani, Paolo Spadini.
Last, but not least, I wish to thank the students, undergraduate, graduate, and postdocs, who for decades have accompanied my teaching and research activity with stimulating curiosity. Many comments, exercises, and complements of this book are the direct result of questions and comments that came from them.
Our objective in writing this book was to produce a textbook for a modern physics course of either one or two semesters for physics and engineering students. Such a course normally follows a full-year, introductory, calculus-based physics course for freshmen or sophomores. Before each edition we have the publisher send a questionnaire to users of modern physics books to see what needed to be changed or added. Most users like our textbook as is, especially the complete coverage of topics including the early quantum theory, subfi elds of physics, general relativity, and cosmology/astrophysics. Our book continues to be useful for either a one- or two-semester modern physics course. We have made no major changes in the order of subjects in the fourth edition.
The first edition of our text established a trend for a contemporary approach to the exciting, thriving, and changing field of modern science. After briefly visiting the status of physics at the turn of the last century, we cover relativity and quantum theory, the basis of any study of modern physics. Almost all areas of science depend on quantum theory and the methods of experimental physics. We have included the name Quantum Mechanics in two of our chapter titles (Chapters 5 and 6) to emphasize the quantum connection. The latter part of the book is devoted to the subfields of physics (atomic, condensed matter, nuclear, and particle) and the exciting fi elds of cosmology and astrophysics. Our experience is that science and engineering majors particularly enjoy the study of modern physics after the sometimes-laborious study of classical mechanics, thermodynamics, electricity, magnetism, and optics. The level of mathematics is not difficult for the most part, and students feel they are fi nally getting to the frontiers of physics. We have brought the study of modern physics alive by presenting many current applications and challenges in physics, for example, nanoscience, high-temperature superconductors, quantum teleportation, neutrino mass and oscillations, missing dark mass and energy in the universe, gamma-ray bursts, holography, quantum dots, and nuclear fusion. Modern physics texts need to be updated periodically to include recent advances. Although we have emphasized modern applications, we also provide the sound theoretical basis for quantum theory that will be needed by physics majors in their upper division and graduate courses.
Changes for the Fourth Edition
Our book continues to be the most complete and up-to-date textbook in the modern physics market for sophomores/juniors. We have made several changes for the fourth edition to aid the student in learning modern physics. We have added additional end-ofchapter questions and problems and have modifi ed many problems from earlier editions, xt-stroke-width: 0px; “> with an emphasis on including more real-world problems with current research applications whenever possible. We continue to have a larger number of questions and problems than competing textbooks, and for users of the robust Thornton/Rex Modern Physics for Scientists and Engineers, third edition course in WebAssign, we have a correlation guide of the fourth edition problems to that third edition course.
We have added additional examples to the already large number in the text. The pedagogical changes made for the third edition were highly successful. To encourage and support conceptual thinking by students, we continue to use conceptual examples and strategy discussion in the numerical examples. Examples with numerical solutions include a discussion of what needs to be accomplished in the example, the procedure to go through to find the answer, and relevant equations that will be needed. We present the example solutions in some detail, showing enough steps so that students can follow the solution to the end.
We continue to provide a signifi cant number of photos and biographies of scientists who have made contributions to modern physics. We have done this to give students a perspective of the background, education, trials, and efforts of these scientists. We have also updated many of the Special Topic boxes, which we believe provide accurate and useful descriptions of the excitement of scientifi c discoveries, both past and current.
Chapter-by-Chapter Changes We have rewritten some sections in order to make the explanations clearer to the student. Some material has been deleted, and new material has been added. In particular we added new results that have been reported since the third edition. This is especially true for the chapters on the subfields of physics, Chapters 8–16. We have covered the most important subjects of modern physics, but we realize that in order to cover everything, the book would have to be much longer, which is not what our users want. Our intention is to keep the level of the textbook at the sophomore/junior undergraduate level. We think it is important for instructors to be able to
supplement the book whenever they choose—especially to cover those topics in which they themselves are expert. Particular changes by chapter include the following:
• Chapter 2: we have updated the search for violations of Lorentz symmetry and added some discussion about four vectors.
• Chapter 3: we have rewritten the discussion of the Rayleigh-Jeans formula and Planck’s discovery.
• Chapter 9: we improved the discussion about the symmetry of boson wave functions and its application to the Fermi exclusion principle and Bose-Einstein condensates.
• Chapter 10: we added a discussion of classes of superconductors and have updated our discussion concerning applications of superconductivity. The latter includes how superconductors are now being used to determine several fundamental constants.
• Chapter 11: we added more discussion about solar energy, Blu-ray DVD devices, increasing the number of transistors on a microchip using new semiconductor materials, graphene, and quantum dots. Our section on nanotechnology is especially complete.
• Chapter 12: we updated our discussion on neutrino detection and neutrino mass, added a description of nuclear magnetic resonance, and upgraded our discussion on using radioactive decay to study the oldest terrestrial materials.
• Chapter 13: we updated our discussion about nuclear power plants operating in the United States and the world and presented a discussion of possible new, improved reactors. We discussed the tsunami-induced tragedy at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan and added to our discussion of searches for new elements and their discoveries.
• Chapter 14: we upgraded our description of particle physics, improved and expanded the discussion on Feynman diagrams, updated the search for the Higgs boson, discussed new experiments on neutrino oscillations, and added discussion on matter-antimatter, supersymmetry, string theory, and M-theory. We mention that the LHC has begun operation as the Fermilab Tevatron accelerator is shutting down.
• Chapter 15: we improved our discussion on gravitational wave detection, added to our discussion on black holes, and included the fi nal results of the Gravity Probe B satellite.